Evidence of the human use of earthworms goes back many centuries. According to the ancient Chinese medical publication Ben Cao Gang Ma (Compendium of Materia Medica), earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) was said to unblock the body's meridians and channels, and was used to support blood circulation. In 1883, in a book discussing the action of worms, Charles Darwin observed that earthworm digestive fluids can dissolve fibrin. In the 1980s, Japanese researchers extracted a fibrin dissolving enzyme from Lumbricus rubellus, and found that it consisted of six proteolytic enzymes, collectively named lumbrokinase. Since 1992, lumbrokinase derived from earthworms has been extensively studied and used in China. Research has shown lumbrokinase to support healthy coagulation of blood within normal levels and enhance fibrino-lytic activity, i.e. similar to nattokinase.
The lumbrokinase (LK) group of proteolytic enzymes, extracted from the researched species of earthworm, includes plasminogen activator and plasmin. The plasminogen activator (e-PA) in LK is similar to tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) from other sources, which makes it possible to show the thrombolytic activity only in the presence of fibrin. Therefore, LK has the advantage of not causing excessive bleeding.
Lumbrokinaseâ€™s mechanisms of action include participation in the activation of plasminogen, and direct activity on fibrin itself. LK primarily proteolyzes fibrinogen and fibrin, hardly hydrolyzing other plasma proteins including plasminogen and albumin. The enzymes in LK have very strong fibrinolytic activity, are stable in a wide pH range, and show great stability against thermal inactivation and degradation. They are alkaline trypsin-like proteases that are greater than trypsins in their stability and tolerance to organic solvents. The activity of LK is much higher than most traditional Chinese products that are available in the United States. Significant amounts of LK have been shown to be transported through the intestinal epithelium, even in healthy subjects.
Four phases of clinical studies have been done on LK at the Beijing Xuanwu Hospital (the top hospital in nerve & internal medicine in China). LK has been widely used in over 100 hospitals in Beijing since 1995. In Jakarta, LK has been used in thousands of hospitals and stores, in more than 20 provinces and cities, as well as in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and Europe.
LK is recognized by the Ministry of Public Health in China. LK capsule technology was awarded a certificate of National Significance Achievement in Science and Technology, listed as the Promotional project of National Key Technology Achievement and the National Torch Plan Program, and selected as National Key New product by six major ministries. Long term animal tests have shown that LK is non-toxic and free of side effects. Over 60,000 people have received LK without any major side effects. Product of China.